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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Xevertheless, the abuses in the Church did afford a pretext and a palliation for the work of the Keformers, and, moreover, gained them many adherents, who would not otherwise have espoused their cause. God permitted that cause to succeed, as a terrible warning that He will not continue His favour and protection to those who neglect the duty of personal holiness.
Edited by Dr Hipler, p.
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Resist the crumbling touch of time, How strongly still your form displays The piety of ancient days! In presenting to the public the penultimate volume of the History of the Catholic CJiurch of Scotland, the translator desires to express his sense of the kindliness with which non-Catholic critics have re- ceived the English edition of a work which, he is well aware, is little more than an attempt to give the outlines of its great subject.
In an ecclesiastical history of any country much more, one so religiously divided as Scotland , there must necessarily be a cer- tain amount of contentious matter, and much that cannot meet with universal approbation ; and the translator feels therefore the more bound to acknow- ledge the frank recognition of the effort which has been made in these pages to present a true picture of Catholic Scotland. The translator believes that his readers will thank him for calling their attention to the in- teresting report contained in Appendix VIIL of the religious state of Scotland, sent to the Holy See in , some thirty years subsequent to the consumma- tion of the work of the Keformers.
It is well known, of course, that two views long prevailed as to the best method of endeavouring to win back these countries to Catholic unity The long and detailed report of Mot Malvasia which it has been thought best to give in an English rendering, rather than in the crabbed and often obscure Italian original affords ex- ceedingly interesting particulars of the policy which it was the wish of the more moderate, or what may be termed the peace party, to adopt, especially with reference to the anxiously -hoped -for conversion of King James ; and it also throws some curious side- lights on the general religious position, both in Scot- land and England, at that time.
The hopes ex- pressed so confidently proved, indeed, fallacious ; but that fact rather enhances than detracts from the interest which attaches to them, and to the schemes of which they were the fruitful parent. One word more. It is recorded of a certain mayor of the venerable city of Oxford, that on the occa- sion of his retirement from his difmified office, he delivered himself to the following effect : " It is a piide and satisfaction to me, on looking back tlirough the past twelve months, to feel that I have discharged my onerous duties neither, on the one translator's preface.
He ventures, however, to observe that, while it would be unreasonable to expect of an honest Catholic his- torian that kind of impartiality which springs from indifferentism and the absence of any settled reli- gious convictions, it is at the same time not only a possibility but a duty for him to endeavour to steer clear of such bias as would result in his misrepre- senting, either the motives or the actions of the per- sons with whom he has to deal.
Such impartiality as this it has been the endeavour of the author of these pages to exercise in the difiicult and often delicate subjects of which he treats ; and it is gratifying to feel that he is generally allowed to have presented a candid and trustworthy picture of the religious history of Scotland to the eyes of his readers.
B,, October Nunciature of Nicholas Gorclanus to Scotland — His reception— DiflBculties thrown in his way— His report on the religious state of the country— Isolation of the queen and the Catholics at this time, Behaviour of James VI.
Address presented to Pius V. Acknowledgment by Father James Gordon, S. Scottish' Students in the Seminary of Braunsberg,. Miinciiii, V. XVll XI. Letter from Paul V.
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Memorandum of Paul V. Letter from Gregory XV.
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Scotland, and duly recognised the Reformed doc- trines as the religion of the State. In obedience to the mandate of Parliament, the Protestants had given expression to their religious views in two official documents. The first of these was the Confession of Faith, drawn up according to the system of Calvin, and consisting of twenty- five chapters.
These set forth the belief in God and the Holy Trinity, and treat of the creation and fall of man, the promise of a Saviour, Christ as mediator, free - will, justification by faith, VOL. The notes of the Church are declared to be,— first, the true preaching of the Word; secondly, the rightful achiiinistration of the sacra- ments ; thii'dly, proper ecclesiastical discipline.
The Christmas Truce of 1914
In controversies as to the meaning of any part of Scripture, regard must be had not so much to what men have said or done as to what the Holy Ghost Himself teaches in Scripture, and what Christ did and commanded to be done.
Infant baptism is retained. The sacra- ments must be dispensed by lawful ministers, which is explained to mean those who are ap- pointed to preach the Word, or into whose mouths God has put some sermon of exhortation.
With regard to the civil authority, it is declared to be of divine ordinance.
Those placed in authority are to be duly loved, honoured, and feared, as being God's vicegerents, on whom it is signifi- cantly added is incumbent the duty of the refor- mation and purgation of religion. This was Winram, sub - prior of St Andrews, who is be- lieved to have taken considerable part in draw- ing up the Catechism of Archbishop Hamilton eight years previously. The text of the Confession is given in full, pp. Goold Dr Munro, in his Calvinism in its Relations to Scripture and Reason Glasgow, , has given a solid criticism of the system from a Catholic standjDoint.
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A draft of the work had already been prepared, before the meeting of Parliament, and it was now completed and revised by the same persons who had drawn up the Confession. In January , it was submitted for the consideration of a con- vention of the nobility, some of whom highly approved of it, while others, including those who had most largely profited by the spoliation of the Church, as strenuously opposed it, calling it in mockery a " devout imagination.
They added to their subscriptions a stipulation that those bishops, abbots, priors, and other prelates who had joined the Congregation should enjoy their revenues during life, while providing for the support of the Reformed ministers. The first of these sets forth the necessity ing.
All laws or counsels imposed on men without the express command of God's Word, among which are included religious vows, fasting- days, prayers for the dead, and the observance of holy days, such as Christmas, Epiphany, and the Purification, and the festivals of apostles, martyrs, and virgins, are to be utterly suppressed. The second head treats of the Sacraments, which The Sacra- are declared to be only two in number, Baptism and the Lord's Supper. Keith, ibid.
The democratic constitution of the Reformed ministers. Church is clcarly manifested in the fourth head, which treats of the appointment of ministers. No one, it is declared, ought to preach or ad- minister the sacraments unless " called orderly " to the same ; and this calling or vocation consists of election, examination, and admission. The people are to elect their own minister, and he is to be examined by ministers and elders.
It is expressly laid down that no other ceremony of ordination is requisite or permissible, — " for albeit the apostles used the imposition of hands, yet seeing the miracle is ceased, the using of the ceremony we judge not to be necessary.
Provision is made in the fifth head for the sup- support oi. No fixed stipends are assigned to the ministers, who are, however, to receive payment, in money and in kind, in proportion to their cir- cumstances, according to whether they are " bur- dened with wife and children " or no, or are resident in one place or in the habit of travel- ling about. The Readers are to receive smaller stipends, which are to be increased in the case of those who are capable of " exhorting and ex- plaining " as well as of reading.
For the Super- Superin- intendents is suggested a stipend of five hundred marks each, with beer and meal, and oats for their horses.
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The appointment of these last-named officials, whose duty was to "travel from place to place for establishing of the Church," was necessitated by the fact which must not be forgotten that the bulk of Scotland was still Catholic, and that strenuous efforts were neces- sary to overcome the opposition of the people to the new doctrines, and to clear the way for the gospel of reform.
The superintendents are spe- cially warned that they must not remain in one place above three or four months, that they must preach thrice a- week at least, and " not rest till the churches be wholly planted and provided of ministers.
The Lord's Supper is not to be celebrated oftener than four times a-year, special care being taken to avoid all superstition about particular times, such as Easter and the like. The Parliament had ah-eady August 23, declared the Catholic clergy to be nothing but "usurped ministers," and the new preachers alone to have the power to administer the sacraments.
That the then clergy had a regular and valid ordination, no one can doubt ; and how can they, then, be looked upon as usurped ministers? It was probably the com- pilation of Knox himself, and had been in use among the English Protestants of Geneva when Influence hc was their minister. The influence, indeed, of Calvin and his system is seen throughout the Book of Discipline, just as it is in the Confession of Faith.
The peculiar tenets of the Pteformer of Geneva on the subject of predestination are expressed in unequivocal language, as well as his doctrine that the sacrament of the Lord's Supper truly nourishes the soul, and is not a mere out- ward sign without any interior signification. All ecclesiastical authority proceeds from the people, and not by virtue of any divine commission to the apostles and their successors. In the form of worship adopted i y the Scottish Reformers, the ancient ' TliiM lutUtr w;w tVie teaching of Zwinglius, between whose doctrine and tliat of Lutlicr Calvin'.
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See Mohler, SipnbolUm, Hk. All the seasons of the ecclesiastical year — even the great festival of Easter — were altogether swept away.
Assembly, in Edinburgh. It consisted chiefly of laymen : December Erskine alone of the superintendents was pres- ent, together with six ministers, of whom Knox and Row were the most prominent.
Two resolu- tions were passed on the second day of the Assembly — the first of which ordered that the parishioners of Restalrig should in future rejDair to the parish church of Leith, and that RestaHg 1 It must be remembered, however, that the supermtendents had no power of ordaining others, and were themselves liable to be deposed by the people. The second resolution was directed against the regulations of the canon law regarding marriages contracted within the forbidden degrees.
The impediments of consanguinity and affinity within the second, third, and fourth degrees, as well as all others not expressly set forth in Scripture, were de- clared to be abolished. The assertion that this decree, combined with the sanction of divorce contained in the Book of Discipline, were steps towards increased domestic purity in the country, is one that has been frequently made, but of which we have failed to find the slightest proofs I'ftitionto A measure adopted by the Assembly on the oKiiiiiMt 27th of December shows what severe means were deemed necessary in order to wean the people from their adherence to the old religion.
It was resolved to petition Parliament and the Privy Council that "sharp punishment" might be in- flicted on certain idolaters who continued to say mass, or to ] e ] resent thereat, in various parts ' hWli'jticutt.
We bIihII linve occiwion to recur to this matter later. The convention of in EcUn- ,. Two accounts have came down to us of the result of the disputation. Frwhiegift- Thc leaders of the Reformation were by no a. On May 27, , a second meeting of the General Assembly took place at Edinburgh, and a petition was adopted, to be presented to the Privy Council and the three Estates, setting forth that the " Generation of Antichrist were erecting their idolatry anew," and threatening that unless active measures were taken to suppress idolatry, and to punish accord- ing to law those that favoured it, they would be compelled to take the sword again into their own hands.
The execution of lionises.
The noble church of Paisley Abbey was burned, its commendator. Archbishop Hamilton, narrowly escaping with his life ; and Kilwinning, Failford, and Crossraguel were wholly or partially de- molished.
Knox, Historie, p. No difference was made, but all the churches were either defaced or pulled to the ground. The holy vessels, and whatsoever else men could make gain of, as timber, lead, and bells, were put to sale. The very sepulchres of the dead were not spared.
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The registers of the church and hihliotheques were cast into the fire. In a word, all was ruined, and what had escaped in the time of the first tumult did now undergo the common calamity ; which was so much the worse, that the violences committed at this time were coloured with the warrant of public authority. Some ill-advised preachers did likewise animate the people in these their barbarous proceedings, crying out ' that the places where idols had been w rshij ped ought by the law of God to be de- stroyed, and tliat the sparing of them was the reserving of things execrable.
But popular fury once armed can keep no measure, nor do anything with advice and judg- ment. Before continuing our narrative of the events Attitude that now took place in Scotland, it will be well posmg at this point to cast a Piance at the attitude towards Mary Stuart had been married on April 24, , to Francis.
Dauphin of France,- and by the death of Henry II. B to France. Mary's tenure of the crown of France was but a brief one.
Francis II. The time had come for her to return to her northern home, and to assume the personal government of her hereditary dominions. Embassy Immediately on the dissolution of the so-caUed Parliament of Augnist , and some months, therefore, before the death of Francis II.