- Uphill Skiing, Explained
- Principle 1 - Extension Glide
- The Skinny on Skinning: Ski Touring for Beginners
- Ski Touring and Backcountry Skiing Gear
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- How to Skate Uphill in Cross-Country Skiing Without Getting Exhausted?
- Cross-country skiing (sport)
- Beginners Guide to Cross-Country Skiing
The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U. Such races occur over homologated , groomed courses designed to support classic in-track and freestyle events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing.
It also encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation , and cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation.
Related forms of competition are biathlon , where competitors race on cross-country skis and stop to shoot at targets with rifles, and paralympic cross-country skiing that allows athletes with disabilities to compete at cross-country skiing with adaptive equipment.
Uphill Skiing, Explained
Norwegian army units were skiing for sport and prizes in the 18th century. Starting in the latter part of the 20th century, technique evolved from the striding in-track classic technique to include skate-skiing, which occurs on courses that have been groomed with wide lanes for those using the technique.
At the same time, equipment evolved from skis and poles that were made of wood and other natural materials to comprising such man-made materials as fiberglass , carbon fiber , and polyethylene plastics. Athletes train to achieve endurance, strength, speed, skill and flexibility at different levels of intensity. Offseason training often occurs on dry land, sometimes on roller skis.
The organization of cross-country ski competitions aims to make those events accessible both to spectators and television audiences. As with other sports that require endurance, strength and speed, some athletes have chosen to use banned performance-enhancing drugs.
In Danish-Norwegian general, Carl Schack Rantzau , codified four classes of military skiing contests and established prizes for each:  .
The announcement called the event a "wagering race on skis".
Alpine skiing competitions known as hill races existed in Norway during the 18th and 19th centuries, but were discontinued when the main ski festival in Oslo focused on long races competitive cross-country skiing and ski jumping now known as the Nordic disciplines.
The alpine disciplines reemerged in Central Europe around Ski touring competitions Norwegian : turrenn are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is usually within age categories. In the s racers used a single, wooden pole, which was longer and stronger than modern poles, and could be used for braking downhill, as well.
Principle 1 - Extension Glide
In Norway, racing with two poles "Finland style" met with resistance, starting in the s, when some race rules forbade them; objections included issues of aesthetics—how they made skiers "[waddle] like geese". As the use of pairs of pole became the norm, materials favored lightness and strength, starting with bamboo , which gave way to fiberglass, used at the Winter Olympics , aluminum , used at the Winter Olympics , and ultimately carbon fiber, introduced in Skate skiing was introduced to competition in the 20th Century.
Finnish skier Pauli Siitonen developed a variant of the style for marathon or other endurance events in the s by leaving one ski in the track while skating outwards to the side with the other ski one-sided skating ;  this became known as the "marathon skate". The Winter Olympic Games are a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first Winter Olympics, the Winter Olympics , was held in Chamonix , France and included Nordic skiing which includes cross-country skiing among the five principal disciplines.
Cross-country events have evolved in the Winter Olympics since , as seen in the following timeline: . The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been held in various numbers and types of events since for men and since for women. From to , the World Championships were held annually, including years with Winter Olympic Games.
Since , the World Championships have been held in odd-numbered years. FIS events include: . A ski marathon is a long-distance, usually point-to-point race, of more than 40 kilometers; some are held concurrent with shorter races and participation is usually open to the public.
The Skinny on Skinning: Ski Touring for Beginners
In Norwegian, such a race is called turrenn "ski touring race". Awards are usually based on overall placement, placement by sex of athlete, and by age category. Ski Classics is a commercially sponsored international long-distance cross-country skiing cup competition, held in Europe. It originated in January They recognize those athletes who complete Worldloppet races in 10 different countries, at least one of which has to be on another continent, to qualify as a "Worldloppet Master". The organization, sanctioned by FIS, seeks to attract elite racers to its events with the FIS Worldloppet Cup and aims thereby to "increase media and spectator interest in long distance racing".
Ski Touring and Backcountry Skiing Gear
Ski orienteering is an orienteering discipline recognized by the International Orienteering Federation. The World Cup is organized every even year. Biathlon combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; the skier receives a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules; in any given competition one of the following penalties would apply: .
Paralympic cross-country skiing is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with disabilities. Paralympic cross-country skiing is one of two Nordic skiing disciplines in the Winter Paralympic Games ; the other is biathlon. Paralympic cross-country skiing includes standing events, sitting events for wheelchair users , and events for visually impaired athletes under the rules of the International Paralympic Committee. These are divided into several categories for people who are missing limbs, have amputations, are blind, or have any other physical disability, to continue their sport.
The classifications are for: .
Cross country skiing going uphill with manual transmission
Cross-country ski competitors employ one of two techniques, according to the event: classic and skating in freestyle races, where all techniques are allowed.
Skis are lighter, narrower and designed to be faster than those used in recreational cross-country skiing and made of composite materials. Racing ski boots are also lighter than recreational ones and are attached at the toe only to bindings that are specialized for classic or skate skiing.
Racing ski poles are usually made from carbon fiber and feature smaller, lighter baskets than recreational poles. Poles designed for skating are longer than those designed for classic skiing.
In classic cross-country skiing the skis remain parallel, as the skier strides straight ahead. The undersides of the skis have a grip section in the middle treated with a special ski wax that provides friction when the foot is still, yet glides when the foot is in motion, while the rest of the ski bottom has a glide wax. Classic events occur on courses with tracks set by a grooming machine at precise intervals and with carefully planned curvature.
Both poles may be used simultaneously "double-poling" or with alternating foot and arm extended as with running or walking with the pole pushing on the side opposite of the extended, sliding ski. In classic skiing the alternating technique is used for the "diagonal stride"—the predominant classic sub-technique.
Diagonal is useful on level ground and on gentle uphill slopes. Uphill steps are shorter and more frequent.
With double-poling both poles are used simultaneously for thrust, which may be augmented with striding. Double-poling is useful on level ground and on gentle downhill slopes.
On steep uphills fishbone technique can be used. While skate skiing, the skier provides propulsion on a firm snow surface by pushing alternating skis away from one another at an angle, in a manner similar to ice skating.
Skis are waxed with a glide wax over their entire length, making them faster than classic skis. Freestyle events take place on smooth, wide specially groomed courses. With the skating technique double-poling is usually employed with alternating skating strides or with every skate stride.
The following table puts these poling sequences into order according to the speed achieved as a progression of "gears". In the lowest gear rarely used in racing , one is poling on the side of the sliding ski, similar to diagonal stride. In the highest gear, the athlete skates without poles. The primary turns used for racing, are the parallel turn , which is used while descending and can provide braking, and the step turn, which is used for maintaining speed during descents or out of track on flats.
Countries with cross-country ski teams usually have a strategy for developing promising athletes and programs to encourage participation in the sport, starting at a young age.
How to Skate Uphill in Cross-Country Skiing Without Getting Exhausted?
It covers age groups from toddlers to mature adults, who are able to enjoy and participate in the sport. The program encompasses six "domains:" . Ski training for the athlete depends on whether the desired specialty emphasizes endurance marathon or intensity mid-distance events.
The "intensity" theory of ski training uses stress to break down muscles and recovery to build them up stronger than before.
In this theory, there are five levels of intensity for training:  . Athletes train for each level on a seasonal schedule designed for the targeted events: marathon or mid-distance. In its "Organizing committee handbook", the FIS covers aspects of race management, including the layout of the competition venue, organization of the events including scheduling, officiating, and awards , and addressing ancillary factors, such as the role of the media.
Cross-country skiing (sport)
An important aspect of race preparation is grooming the course to provide a surface for skate-skiing and setting tracks for classic events. This takes into account snow physics, methods for packing snow and surface shaping, and the equipment used for these functions. Also key is the layout of grooming and track setting in the stadium with various formats for starts, finishes and intermediate functions for relays and pursuits.
In its "Cross-country homologation manual", the FIS recognizes that fans of the sport wish to follow it on television. With this in mind, the manual addresses how to design the race course and the stadium in a manner that not only enhances the experience of spectators, but of viewers, as well—not just to show the athletes in action, but to show the ways in which fans enjoy the action.
The manual includes considerations of: .
Beginners Guide to Cross-Country Skiing
A course is expected to test the skier's technical and physical abilities, to be laid out in a manner that takes advantage of the natural terrain, and to provide smooth transitions among uphills, downhills and "undulating" terrain—distributed approximately evenly among the three.
It cites two types of stadium, the horseshoe preferred for television and the "ski in, ski out" layout. It emphasizes the importance of accommodating television coverage at the start, finish, and exchange zones for equipment or relays.
In addition, television coverage requires a variety of facilities to support the activities of the press. As with other sports, some competitors in cross-country skiing have chosen to enhance their performance through doping. EPO boosts the oxygen-carrying capability of hemoglobin.
In addition, the team head coach left needles and drip bags at a public location near the Helsinki airport.
Skiers, who have tested positive for EPO or other performance-enhancing drugs, include date of sanction :. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Cross country skiing sport. This article is about the sport of competitive cross-country skiing. For cross-country skiing in general, see Cross-country skiing. Main article: History of skiing. Main article: Ski Classics. Main article: Worldloppet Ski Federation. Main article: Ski-orienteering.
Main article: Biathlon. Main article: Paralympic cross-country skiing.