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According to United Nations , as of , Mumbai was the second most populous city in India after Delhi and the seventh most populous city in the world with a population of In , Mumbai was named an alpha world city. The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were originally home to communities of Marathi language speaking Koli people , who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times.
Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by economic and educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement.
Upon India's independence in the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In , following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement , a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial , commercial  and entertainment capital of India. It is also one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow,  generating 6. The city also houses India's Hindi Bollywood and Marathi cinema industries.
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Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living ,  attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. The oldest known names for the city are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja ; these are sometimes still used. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn , Bombay , Bombain , Bombaym , Monbaym , Mombaim , Mombaym , Bambaye , Bombaiim , Bombeye , Boon Bay ,   and Bon Bahia.
A resident of Mumbai is called Mumbaikar in Marathi , in which the suffix kar means a resident of.
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The term had been in use for quite some time but it gained popularity after the official name change to Mumbai. Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal areas around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands were inhabited since the South Asian Stone Age.
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part of the Maurya Empire , during its expansion in the south, ruled by the Buddhist emperor Ashoka of Magadha. Between the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came under the control of successive indigenous dynasties : Satavahanas , Western Satraps , Abhira , Vakataka , Kalachuris , Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas ,  before being ruled by the Shilaharas from to King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region in the late 13th century and established his capital in Mahikawati present day Mahim.
During this time, the islands were administered by the Muslim Governors of Gujarat , who were appointed by the Delhi Sultanate. The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate , which was established in The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli , built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in The Mughal Empire , founded in , was the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent during the midth century.
According to the treaty, the Seven Islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies were offered to the Portuguese.
More info on Mumbai, India
The territories were later surrendered on 25 October The Portuguese were actively involved in the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay. The islands were leased to several Portuguese officers during their regime.
The Portuguese Franciscans and Jesuits built several churches in the city, prominent being the St. Michael's Church at Mahim ,  St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri ,  St.
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The English were in constant struggle with the Portuguese vying for hegemony over Bombay, as they recognised its strategic natural harbour and its natural isolation from land attacks. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. From onwards, the city was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the seven islands of Bombay into a single amalgamated mass by way of a causeway called the Hornby Vellard , which was completed by The success of the British campaign in the Deccan marked the end of all attacks by native powers.
By , the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation. The opening of the Suez Canal in transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea.
After India's independence in , the territory of the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay State. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state.
Subsequently, the city became the capital of Bombay State. The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state including Bombay was at its height in the s.
In the Lok Sabha discussions in , the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. Bombay Citizens' Committee , an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's independent status. Following protests during the movement in which people lost their lives in clashes with the police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs.
In the late s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the widespread Great Bombay Textile Strike , in which nearly , workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. On 1 October , the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay City and Bombay Suburban , though they continued to be administered by same Municipal Administration.
From to , there has been an increase in violence in the hitherto largely peaceful city. On 12 March , a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in deaths and over injuries. Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub.
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Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district , which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. Mumbai lies at the mouth of the Ulhas River on the western coast of India, in the coastal region known as the Konkan.
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The supply from Powai lake, also within the city limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Soil cover in the city region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity to the sea.
In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season. Flooding during monsoon is a major problem for Mumbai.
Mumbai, India: Wikis
Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The average annual temperature is In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from Air pollution is a major issue in Mumbai.
Mumbai is India's largest city by population and is the financial and commercial capital of the country as it generates 6. Until the s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance , engineering , diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.
State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-skilled self-employed population, who primarily earn their livelihood as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar professions. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most significant ports in India.
Its population as per the census was 12,, Although the Municipal Corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the Commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. The Commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. The powers of the Commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the Corporation or the Standing Committee.
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It scored 3. The two revenue districts of Mumbai come under the jurisdiction of a District Collector.
The Collectors are in charge of property records and revenue collection for the Central Government , and oversee the national elections held in the city.
Mumbai also has a special Terrorist and Disruptive Activities TADA court for people accused of conspiring and abetting acts of terrorism in the city. Mumbai had been a traditional stronghold and birthplace of the Indian National Congress , also known as the Congress Party. The s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June , out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay.
In the national elections , all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the BJP and Shiv Sena in alliance, with both parties winning three seats each.
In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.
In the state assembly elections , out of the 36 assembly constituencies, 15 were won by the BJP, 14 by the Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress. Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the MCGM. The Mumbai Suburban Railway , popularly referred to as Locals forms the backbone of the city's transport system. The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. The Monorail opened in early February Mumbai's bus services carried over 5.
Its fleet consists of single-decker, double-decker, vestibule, low-floor, disabled-friendly, air-conditioned and Euro III compliant diesel and compressed natural gas powered buses. Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes.
The Mumbai Darshan is a tourist bus service which explores numerous tourist attractions in Mumbai. Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercrafts and catamarans. Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners. They were subsequently scrapped due to lack of adequate infrastructure.
Mumbai had about , private vehicles as of March ,  56, black and yellow taxis as of [update] ,  and , auto rickshaws, as of May The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport formerly Sahar International Airport is the main aviation hub in the city and the second busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic.
The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra- Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.
The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command , and also an important base for the Indian Navy. Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them.
The MCGM supplies potable water to the city from six lakes,   most of which comes from the Tulsi and Vihar lakes. The Tansa lake supplies water to the western suburbs and parts of the island city along the Western Railway.