- 3D printing in dentistry
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- Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentistry: An Update
- Cone Beam Computed Tomography (Vol. 1, Issue 1)
- Cone beam computed tomography in oral implants
Cone beam computed tomography CBCT scanners for the oral and maxillofacial region were pioneered in the late s independently by Arai et al. CBCT has a lower dose of radiation, minimal metal artifacts, reduced costs, easier accessibility, and easier handling than multislice computed tomography MSCT ; however, the latter is still considered a better choice for the analysis of bone density using a Hounsfield unit HU scale.
Oral implants require localized area of oral and maxillofacial area for radiation exposure; so, CBCT is an ideal choice. CBCT scans help in the planning of oral implants; they enable measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and mandibular canal to avoid impingement of inferior alveolar nerve, avoid perforation of the mandibular posterior lingual undercut, and assess the density and quality of bone, and help in planning of the oral implant in the maxilla with special attention to the nasopalatine canal and maxillary sinus.
Hence, CBCT reduces the overall exposure to radiation. Cone beam computed tomography CBCT was introduced to the dental field to replace the cumbersome, expensive, and high-radiation—producing medical CT scans around a decade ago[ 1 ] Suomalainen et al.
The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology has stated that cross-sectional views are recommended for planning dental implants, and this in combination with the easy accessibility, easy handling, and low-radiation dose of CBCT imaging will lead to the widespread use of CBCT imaging in implantology.
As Ludlow[ 6 ] stated, the E of radiation has been recommended by the ICRP[ 7 ] as a means of comparing the detriment of different exposures to ionizing radiation to an equivalent detriment produced by a full-body dose of radiation.
In the posterior mandibular region, a deep lingual undercut is a common finding and can be difficult to manage, especially when a lingual plate perforation is suspected. It is essential to check the angulations and positioning of the drills or implant fixtures via radiographs and clinical detection of a possible perforation in the osteotomy site. For preoperative implants, CTs are preferred because cross-sectional views bring a clearer visualization of the anatomy of the surgical site [ Figure 1 ].
3D printing in dentistry
The parallel ridge type type P, The convergent ridge type type C, Cone beam computed tomography image demonstrating the possibility of lingual plate perforation by an implant. Three types of cross-sectional posterior mandibular morphology: a C type, b P type, and c U type; line A represented a reference line 2 mm coronal to the inferior alveolar nerve canal. Watanabe et al. Most of these studies suggest an acceptable average of marginal loss of bone bone loss of 2 mm after the first year and the absence of a peri-implant radiolucency as a criterion of radiological success.
The mandibular canal and mental foramen involve the inferior alveolar artery and inferior alveolar nerve. Because images of the accessory mental foramina and bony canal to the accessory mental foramen overlap in various trabecular bone patterns.
So, it was indicated that surgical complications might be attributed to the existence of a mandibular incisive canal with a true neurovascular supply, and potential risks might also be related to the presence of the lingual foramen and anatomic variations, such as an anterior looping of the mental nerve [ Figure 3 ]. Measurement between the accessory mental foramen and point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal: a Two-dimensional cone beam computed tomography image of the accessory mental foramen and point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal; b Linear distance between the accessory mental foramen and point of bifurcation from the mandibular canal; c Schematic drawing of 2D CBCT image a.
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The nasopalatine canal is usually described as being located in the midline of the palate, posterior to the central maxillary incisors. The funnel-shaped oral opening of the canal in the midline of the anterior palate is known as the incisive foramen, and is usually located immediately below the incisive papilla. The canal divides into two canaliculi on its way to the nasal cavity, and terminates at the nasal floor with an opening known as the foramina of Stenson at either side of the septum.
The canal contains the nasopalatine incisive nerve and the terminal branch of the descending nasopalatine artery, as well as fibrous connective tissue, fat, and even small salivary glands.
Contact of the implant with neural tissue may result in failure of osseointegration or lead to sensory dysfunction.
Cbct in dentistry pdf printer
Type B nasopalatine canal two separate canals as evaluated in a coronal cone beam computed tomography image. Dimensional alterations occur on the alveolar process following tooth extraction. This difference in the healing outcome maybe related to the fact that the buccal bone wall is thinner than its palatal counterpart.
Placement of implant in fresh extraction sockets could counteract ridge resorption. The thinner the facial bone wall, the more extensive the loss of facial bone.
Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Natl J Maxillofac Surg. Jyoti Gupta and Syed Parveez Ali. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Address for correspondence: Dr.
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E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Cone beam computed tomography CBCT scanners for the oral and maxillofacial region were pioneered in the late s independently by Arai et al. Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography, Hounsfield units, multislice computed tomography. Open in a separate window. Figure 1.
Figure 2. Accessory mental foramen The mandibular canal and mental foramen involve the inferior alveolar artery and inferior alveolar nerve. Figure 3. Nasopalatine morphology The nasopalatine canal is usually described as being located in the midline of the palate, posterior to the central maxillary incisors. Figure 4. Figure 5a. Figure 5b. Figure 5c. Alveolar process Dimensional alterations occur on the alveolar process following tooth extraction.
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Role of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentistry: An Update
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Cone Beam Computed Tomography (Vol. 1, Issue 1)
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Cone beam computed tomography in oral implants
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