Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
The SI unit of power is the watt , one joule per second. Electric power is usually produced by electric generators , but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes as domestic mains electricity by the electric power industry through an electric power grid.
Electric utilities measure power using an electricity meter , which keeps a running total of the electric energy delivered to a customer.
Calculating Electric Power
Electrical power provides a highly ordered low entropy form of energy and can be carried long distances and converted into other forms of energy such as motion , light or heat with high energy efficiency. Electric power, like mechanical power , is the rate of doing work , measured in watts , and represented by the letter P. The term wattage is used colloquially to mean "electric power in watts.
Electric power is transformed to other forms of energy when electric charges move through an electric potential voltage difference, which occurs in electrical components in electric circuits. From the standpoint of electric power, components in an electric circuit can be divided into two categories:.
Chapter 2 - Ohm's Law
Some devices can be either a source or a load, depending on the voltage and current through them. For example, a rechargeable battery acts as a source when it provides power to a circuit, but as a load when it is connected to a battery charger and is being recharged, or a generator as a power source and a motor as a load.
Since electric power can flow either into or out of a component, a convention is needed for which direction represents positive power flow. Electric power flowing out of a circuit into a component is arbitrarily defined to have a positive sign, while power flowing into a circuit from a component is defined to have a negative sign.
Thus passive components have positive power consumption, while power sources have negative power consumption. This is called the passive sign convention. In alternating current circuits, energy storage elements such as inductance and capacitance may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. The portion of power flow that, averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform, results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as real power also referred to as active power.
That portion of power flow due to stored energy, that returns to the source in each cycle, is known as reactive power. The real power P in watts consumed by a device is given by. The relationship between real power, reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by representing the quantities as vectors.
Power Formulas in DC, AC Single Phase & Three Phase Circuits.
Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and reactive power is represented as a vertical vector. The apparent power vector is the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed by connecting the real and reactive power vectors.
This representation is often called the power triangle. Using the Pythagorean Theorem , the relationship among real, reactive and apparent power is:.
The ratio of real power to apparent power is called power factor and is a number always between 0 and 1. Where the currents and voltages have non-sinusoidal forms, power factor is generalized to include the effects of distortion.
Electrical energy flows wherever electric and magnetic fields exist together and fluctuate in the same place. The simplest example of this is in electrical circuits, as the preceding section showed. The result is a scalar since it is the surface integral of the Poynting vector.
The fundamental principles of much electricity generation were discovered during the s and early s by the British scientist Michael Faraday. His basic method is still used today: electricity is generated by the movement of a loop of wire, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.
For electric utilities , it is the first process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. The other processes, electricity transmission , distribution , and electrical power storage and recovery using pumped-storage methods are normally carried out by the electric power industry. Electricity is mostly generated at a power station by electromechanical generators , driven by heat engines heated by combustion , geothermal power or nuclear fission.
Calculating Electric Power
Other generators are driven by the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. There are many other technologies that are used to generate electricity such as photovoltaic solar panels. A battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy.
There are two types of batteries: primary batteries disposable batteries , which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries rechargeable batteries , which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times.
Batteries come in many sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers.
The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of power, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity , through a grid connection.
Electric Power (1 of 3) and Watts, An Explanation
The grid distributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power is generated by central power stations or by distributed generation. The electric power industry has gradually been trending towards deregulation - with emerging players offering consumers competition to the traditional public utility companies. Electric power, produced from central generating stations and distributed over an electrical transmission grid, is widely used in industrial, commercial and consumer applications.
The per capita electric power consumption of a country correlates with its industrial development. Electric lighting is the most important form of artificial light. Electrical energy is used directly in processes such as extraction of aluminum from its ores and in production of steel in electric arc furnaces.
Reliable electric power is essential to telecommunications and broadcasting.
Electric Power Formula
Electric power is used to provide air conditioning in hot climates, and in some places electric power is an economically competitive source of energy for building space heating. Use of electric power for pumping water ranges from individual household wells to irrigation projects and energy storage projects. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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