Guds Utvalgte Folk Jostein Gaarder Pdf

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

The few mentions of Norway in the international media give the impression that its 4. The Global Peace Index rates Norway as the most peaceful country.

There is also, however, a different, rather ugly Norway. Few people outside the country are familiar with the extreme anti-Israeli expressions among these elites.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

There also have been a number of anti-Semitic incidents in recent years. The Simon Wiesenthal Center cites Norway as one of the few countries that has consistently been given a failing grade on the investigation and prosecution of Nazi criminals. Some are similar in message and venom to the worst anti-Semitic caricatures published in Nazi Germany.

With the exception of Greece it is difficult to find a similar array of anti-Israeli cartoons in mainstream papers anywhere in Europe. A caricature published in the cultural weekly Morgenbladet shows an ultra-Orthodox Jew shooting Arabs whom he accuses of stealing fuel. This image drew harsh reactions from several public figures.

One cartoon it published showed the Israeli flag with three bands: the upper and lower ones were red with dripping blood, the middle one was white with a Star of David. An essay by Erez Uriely gives an overview of Jew-hatred in Norwegian cartoons.

In the days of the Nazis, Jews were characterized as vermin.

Nowadays absolute evil is embodied by Nazism, and anti-Semites commonly use the motif of Holocaust inversion. The many anti-Israeli cartoons in a variety of papers show how Norwegian anti-Israelism and anti-Semitism overlap.

These caricatures recycle classic anti-Semitic motifs.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

The socialist Hamar Arbeiderblad depicted Sharon with horns, a theme alluding to the Devil. The hate cartoons are not a phenomenon of the past few years.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

The frequency of these cartoons illustrates the permeation of Norwegian society and particularly its elite with anti-Israeli and anti-Semitic motifs. Such images are the tip of the iceberg of racist stereotypes in a society. Had these caricatures been considered shocking, there already would have been a huge outcry against them years ago. This is the more problematic because this hatred is displayed in a country that is falsely presented as a model democracy.

These three, respectively, have 61, 15, and 11 of the seats in the Norwegian parliament. Janne Haaland Matlary, a professor of political science at the University of Oslo and former administrative head of the Foreign Office, has analyzed how this government has redirected its foreign policy to the left.

In earlier Norwegian visits that had been the usual procedure. To put this in perspective, it should be mentioned that Cuba is again rated by Freedom House in as one of the most unfree countries in the world. It is in the lowest category 7 for both civil liberties and political rights.

This includes issues such as freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, the rule of law, as well as personal autonomy and individual rights.

Other countries at this lowest level are Burma and Uzbekistan. Another example of this leftward shift was the positive attitude toward the now-defunct Palestinian Hamas-Fatah government. Norway has probably taken the most accommodating position in Western Europe toward Hamas, which in its charter calls for the killing of all Jews.

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When the European Union decided to boycott the initial Hamas government, Norway followed this policy as well. However, government officials did not want to meet Adwan and the Foreign Ministry was reportedly annoyed by the visit. Later visas were granted to two Hamas parliamentarians who were invited by the Norwegian Palestinian Committee.

Although the Norwegian government will claim that it acts out of humanitarian considerations, its mindset on the Arab-Israeli conflict is in fact closer to that of the Arab dictatorships and terrorist movements than to democratic Israel. The previous, center-right government also sometimes applied double standards to Israel in its statements.

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One example of this that drew much international attention occurred when Aftenposten published an article by the internationally known author Jostein Gaarder during the Second Lebanon War in We do not recognize the state of Israel.

There is no way back. The state of Israel has raped the recognition of the world and does not get peace before it lays down its weapons. The state of Israel in its present form is history. In his rage over the war Gaarder accused Israel of numerous atrocities. While claiming repeatedly that he is not an anti-Semite and did not intend to offend Jews, Gaarder used strong anti-Semitic rhetoric:. We call it racism…. There are limits to our patience and there are limits to our tolerance. We do not believe in divine promises as a rationale for occupation and apartheid.

Norway: Extreme Expressions of Anti-Israeli and Anti-Semitic Attitudes

We have left the Middle Ages behind. He proceeds from talking about Israel in one paragraph to attacking the Jewish people in the next paragraph. It turned out, however, that Gaarder had wide support for his anti-Semitic views.

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Aftenposten gave more space to negative than to positive reactions. In Internet talkbacks, however, where the authors are generally anonymous, the majority was in favor of Gaarder. This is yet further proof of how the anti-Israeli mutation of severe anti-Semitism has permeated Norwegian society. An anti-Israeli mood often generates an upsurge in anti-Semitism.

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This is nonlogical linking, but still it is not surprising that the attacks against Jews increased since we saw the intense war reporting such as we had this summer, images that are interpreted in an anti-Jewish way.

In Martin Bodd, a representative of the Jewish community of Oslo, at an international conference of the Anti-Defamation League, gave a country report on anti-Semitic incidents in Norway. He noted that there had been more harassment of Jews there in the preceding two years than at any time since Hardly any of the children or the adults offended by anti-Semitic statements or alike, have been willing to come forward publicly.

An equivalent would be the harassment of many tens of thousands of Jewish children in the United States. In certain parts of the big cities in Norway, it is not recommended to wear symbols, letters, etc. Muslims dominate these areas. Yet, in the perspective of the conflict in the Middle East and the reactions around the world, our statement is that Jews are safe in Norway. Anonymous death threats have been sent to prominent Norwegian Jews.

Norway Extreme Expressions of Anti-Israeli Attitudes

Some Jewish children were told they would not be allowed to attend a birthday party because of Israeli actions.

These incidents are important, but at present remain exceptions. Former prime minister Kjell Magne Bondevik launched a conference about harassment of school children, mentioning offenses against Jewish children in particular. Bodd also cited several other incidents.

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On 20 April , Stoltenberg, who had been prime minister till and in would again obtain this position, requested during a demonstration the removal of posters equating the Star of David and the swastika.

Two pictures from that meeting illustrate the nature of some of the banners. For instance, the Director of the Institute for Human Rights Butenschion, who has been active in the Palestinian Committee in Norway; Lars Gule, leader of the Humanitarian Ethics Association, responsible for attempting to carry out a terrorist attack in Jerusalem in He furthermore pointed out that the Norwegian media often confused Israel and Jews. There also were other incidents. His employer thought the symbol might be a provocation to the many Muslims in the school where he worked teaching Norwegian to immigrants.

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In such an atmosphere Norwegian Jews often prefer to keep a low profile about the anti-Semitic incidents. The keynote address was given by Jo Benkow, the Jewish former speaker of the Norwegian parliament.

This gave an embellished picture of the reality. Thereafter these persons lowered their public profile.

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None of the sources, however, was willing to state so publicly. Although anti-Semitic incidents have increased in the new century, they were already occurring well before. The Israeli diplomat asked the questioner what that had to do with the topic. The general replied that he had taken this opportunity for the question because the diplomat was the first Jew he had ever met and presumably could give an answer, since his ancestors were probably responsible.

The diplomat then suggested that he call upon the ambassador of Italy as he was likely to be a descendant of the Romans who had pronounced the verdict. DMT, the organized Jewish community, is very small at around members out of the estimated Jews in Norway, not including Israelis.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

In the summer of this community witnessed a series of serious anti-Semitic incidents. The most dramatic event, however, occurred on 17 September when the sole Oslo synagogue was fired at. In the aftermath of the shooting incident the government decided to make available five million Norwegian crowns for security measures for the two synagogues in Oslo and Trondheim, the only ones in the country. In addition to shooting at the synagogue, the charges include planned terror acts against the American and Israeli embassies in Oslo.

Norwegian courts have tended to be lenient toward extreme anti-Semites. The matter came before the Supreme Court, which found Sjolie not guilty on the ground that Norway grants freedom of expression.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

Sjolie in the course of his speech are not protected by the right to freedom of speech under Norwegian law. Norwegian left-wing organizations have been at the forefront of boycott attempts against Israel.

Jostein Gaarder

Bodd noted that on 1 May in the midst of the Second Intifada-the leader of the Labor Union LO , which counts seven hundred thousand members, called for a boycott of Israel. Few of the many Norwegian initiatives for implementing boycotts against Israel have succeeded. However, after pressure from the Foreign Ministry that claimed the boycott was illegal according to international law, Norwegian law, and the EU and WTO agreements the county decided to abandon it. Several leftist political movements have made an issue of boycotting Israel.

Guds utvalgte folk jostein gaarder pdf

For instance, the SV Party has called for a boycott on various occasions. At its general assembly in it was discovered that the oranges served on the fruit plates were Israeli Jaffas.

These were ordered to be removed immediately. Norway is a largely secular country. Although the majority of Norwegians belong to the Lutheran State Church, a large number of them do not practice.