He is currently the chairman of largest political aggregation party which have majority of parliament in both chambers Union for Peace and Development Party , He was the 8th President of Somalia from 16 September until 16 February A civil and political activist , Mohamud was previously a university professor and dean. His efforts at advancing national reconciliation, anti-corruption measures, and socio-economic and security sector reforms in Somalia were cited as reasons for the selection.
He was born in Jalalaqsi , a small agricultural town situated in the central Hiran of present-day Somalia , during the trusteeship period. Mohamud is married to Qamar Ali Omar and has children. Mohamud frequented primary and secondary schools in his hometown. In , he earned an undergraduate diploma in technology from the institution. There, he completed a master's degree in technical education in In , he completed three of the SPI's intensive courses, studying mediation, trauma healing, and designing learner-centered trainings.
In a professional capacity, Mohamud accepted a position as an instructor and trainer at the Lafole Technical Secondary School.
When the civil war broke out in the early s, Mohamud remained in Somalia and acted as a consultant with various NGOs , UN bureaus, and peace and development projects.
The network has also offered scholarships for higher studies and placements in educational institutions to many students. On 10 September , legislators elected Mohamud President of Somalia during the country's presidential elections.
After the first round of voting, former President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed emerged as the frontrunner, amassing 64 votes. Mohamud was a close second with 60 votes, and Prime Minister Abdiweli Mohamed Ali placed third with 32 votes. Immediately after the final ballot results had been read out, Mohamud was sworn into office. In his acceptance speech, President Mohamud thanked the general Somali populace, the Federal Parliament, as well as the other challengers. He also voiced support for the ongoing post-conflict reconstruction efforts in Somalia and indicated that he was prepared to work closely with the international community.
Additionally, Ahmed congratulated Mohamud on his victory and pledged to cooperate with the new head of state. Mohamud's appointment was welcomed throughout the world.
Hassan Mohamed Hussein
The UN Special Representative for Somalia Augustine Mahiga issued a statement describing the election as a "great step forward on the path to peace and prosperity[ Similarly, the AU Commission for Somalia hailed the selection and pledged to support the new leadership. It also urged the Somali authorities to build on this momentum, and promised to continue partnering with the Somali government.
On 16 September , Mohamud was formally inaugurated as President of Somalia at a ceremony attended by various foreign leaders and dignitaries. UN Special Envoy to Somalia Mahiga described the moment as the beginning of a "new era" for the nation as well as the conclusion of the transitional period.
On 12 September , while President Mohamud was meeting with foreign delegates in Mogadishu , two suicide bombers and two gunmen dressed in government uniforms attempted an attack on the Jazeera Hotel where the dignitaries had convened. There were reportedly around 10 casualties, among which were three Somali security detail, one AU peacekeeper, and the assailants themselves.
We didn't hear it for the last couple of months even. Priority number one is security and priority number two and priority number three. According to Somali government officials, AU forces have assumed responsibility for President Mohamud's security while investigations are launched into the incidents. On 3 September , a roadside bomb detonated near vehicles in President Mohamud's convoy in Merca. One Somali soldier was injured in the blast, but Mohamud was unharmed and continued on to his destination.
Al-Shabaab later claimed responsibility for the explosion. Abdirahman Omar Osman, a spokesman for the president, dismissed the group's statement as propaganda, indicating that Mohamud's convoy was not targeted and that it was uncertain what might have happened to an earlier convoy.
On 7 October , al-Shabab gunmen ambushed and killed Dr Liban Osman, nephew of President Mohamud, and one other man as their car was traveling through the Wadajir neighborhood of the capital city Mogadishu.
Upon assuming office, President Mohamud and his Cabinet resumed efforts by Somali and international stakeholders to end the year UN arms embargo on Somalia,  the oldest such global weapons blockade. Although Britain and France reportedly expressed reservations over increasing the general flow of arms into Somalia, UK officials began drafting a resolution to ease the embargo on weapons purchases by the Somali government for a provisional period of one year.
In its 6 March meeting, the member UN Security Council unanimously approved Resolution to suspend the arms embargo on Somalia for a one-year period. The endorsement officially lifts the purchase ban on light weapons, but retains certain restrictions on the procurement of heavy arms such as surface-to-air missiles, howitzers and cannons.
He indicated that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants. In April , President Mohamud resumed national reconciliation talks between the central government in Mogadishu and the regional authorities in Hargeisa. Organized by the government of Turkey in Ankara , the meeting ended with a signed agreement between Mohamud and Ahmed Mahamoud Silanyo , President of the northwestern Somaliland region, agreeing to allocate fairly to the Somaliland region its portion of the development aid earmarked for Somalia as a whole and to cooperate on security.
In August , the Somali federal government signed a national reconciliation agreement in Addis Ababa with the autonomous Jubaland administration based in southern Somalia. Endorsed by the federal State Minister for the Presidency Farah Abdulkadir on behalf of President Mohamud, the pact was brokered by the Foreign Ministry of Ethiopia and came after protracted bilateral talks.
Under the terms of the agreement, Jubaland will be administered for a two-year period by a Juba Interim Administration and led by the region's incumbent president, Ahmed Mohamed Islam Madobe. The regional president will serve as the chairperson of a new Executive Council, to which he will appoint three deputies. Management of Kismayo 's seaport and airport will also be transferred to the Federal Government after a period of six months, and revenues and resources generated from these infrastructures will be earmarked for Jubaland's service delivery and security sectors as well as local institutional development.
Additionally, the agreement includes the integration of Jubaland's military forces under the central command of the Somali National Army SNA , and stipulates that the Juba Interim Administration will command the regional police.
Under the rubric of the New Deal for Somalia, Mohamud held additional national reconciliation talks with the regional leaders in Garowe in April and May of the year. He also asserted that the matter should be resolved in parliament.
Parliament Speaker Mohamed Osman Jawari subsequently announced that of the present MPs had voted against Shirdon, whereas 65 legislators had voted to retain him. He also commended the legislators on adhering to procedural rules during the vote, and pledged to work constructively with the succeeding administration.
In February—March , Mohamud began a reformation of the Mogadishu Chief of Staff and Benadir regional administration in an effort to strengthen their senior leadership. Mungab replaced Mohamed Nur Tarsan in the mayorship. In August , on the occasion of the U. The conference was the largest of its kind to be held by an incumbent United States administration, and was attended by the heads of state and government of all of Africa's countries.
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud
Of the new youth initiatives that the Federal Government of Somalia is slated to implement, Mohamud indicated that a comprehensive youth empowerment framework would be prioritized, with attendant legislation and policies.
A university accreditation system, an employment creation program, and youth enterprise would also be developed.
Additionally, local and regional youth representation in civil, political and governmental activities would be enhanced. To this end, two Youth Advisers would be named to the Office of the President, and the minimum age for prospective officeholders would be lowered to Leadership of Somalia's first national park would also be assigned to young managers so as to strengthen environmental preservation and potential tourism opportunities. In coastal areas, jobs in marine ecosystem management and sustainable fishing would be generated.
Additional opportunities would be made available through the introduction of fiber optics and 3G. The federal government would likewise support the establishment of the Somali Film Council. According to Mohamud, the Somali federal government delegation is scheduled to meet with its U.
The bank was established by a group of entrepreneurs, whom the gathered officials commended for their commitment to providing international banking services to facilitate local commercial activities.
Additionally, the Chairman of the bank indicated that the institution possessed a swift code permitting internal banking, and that its emphasis would be on developing the nation's livestock, agricultural and other economic resources.
He also ordered all of the reassigned ministers to carry on with their ordinary duties. Puntland Information Minister Abdiweli Hirsi Abdulle also suggested that the row should be resolved through constitutional means, asserted that the Puntland regional administration was prepared to mediate between the two federal leaders, and called on international representatives to do the same.
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In early November, UN Ambassador Kay and EU representatives Alexander Rondos and Michele Cervone issued separate press statements urging President Mohamud and Prime Minister Ahmed to set aside their differences for the greater communal good, and to continue instead working toward the goals enshrined in Vision Kay also expressed concern about the possibility of vote buying marring a parliamentary vote of confidence, and indicated that any such potential political disruption would be reported to the UN Security Council.
Similarly, Rondos and Cervone in their capacity as financial stakeholders urged the Federal MPs to adhere to standard legislative protocols. He also called on foreign partners to respect Somalia's sovereignty and allow its legislative process to proceed constitutionally. President Mohamud and Prime Minister Ahmed concurrently began holding consultations with various Federal MPs to gather support ahead of a potential vote of confidence.
Although Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari received the motion, a date of deliberation in the legislature was not specified. On 9 November, Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari and international representatives began separate mediation efforts in a final attempt to resolve the differences between President Mohamud and Prime Minister Ahmed. Department of State issued a statement likewise indicating that a parliamentary vote of confidence would be counterproductive.
Ali Mohamed Mohamud
It instead urged the Federal Government of Somalia's leaders to unite, and suggested that the U. On 11 November, legislators met in parliament to deliberate on the no-confidence motion.
Supporters of Prime Minister Ahmed subsequently began to make noise, effectively precluding any discussion.
Consequently, Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari indefinitely adjourned the session. On 15 November, a second attempt to hold a parliamentary vote of confidence again failed.
Somali Civil War (2009–present)
Over lawmakers sang the national anthem and held up placards supporting Prime Minister Ahmed, prompting Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari to indefinitely adjourn the session. On 16 November, MP supporters of President Mohamud presented a letter to Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari calling for him to convene the legislature so that the vote of confidence could take place.
Believed to be supporters of the President, the ministerial officials also indicated that they themselves would step down from their positions if the Premier declined to do so within 24 hours. On 24 November, a third attempt to hold a parliamentary vote of confidence ended in chaos.
Lawmakers supporting Prime Minister Ahmed shredded the attendance register as well as their copies of the motion.
They also immediately began yelling when Federal Parliament Speaker Jawari entered the hall, prompting the legislative leader to indefinitely adjourn the session. On 24 November, Prime Minister Ahmed released a statement indicating that he made the Cabinet reshuffle to ameliorate the performance of the Council of Ministers and resolve internal wrangles.
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He likewise indicated that the directive was in line with Article a and b of the Provisional Constitution, and that the Office of the President's decree attempting to nullify the reshuffle contravened those constitutional clauses. Additionally, Ahmed asserted that the ensuing motion of no confidence was motivated by displeasure over the transfer of one particular Cabinet minister to another portfolio.
He also suggested that the motion was regarded by most legislators and the general public as having been driven by graft, that the attempts to table it bypassed the rules and procedures of the parliament, and that it ultimately was an obstacle toward fulfilling the goals enshrined in Vision Ahmed also commended lawmakers for countering the motion, and applauded the House of the People's leadership for acknowledging that the motion was an impediment on the legislature's functions and instead calling for reconciliatory dialogue to resolve the impasse.
In January , at an event commemorating the 42nd anniversary of the official adoption of the Somali Latin script , Mohamud announced that the Somali language would be used for all government documents at every state office in Somalia. The President indicated that foreign languages would thereafter be reserved for communication with foreign representatives. He also noted that Somali was part of UNESCO's cross-border languages category, and asserted that no nation achieved significant development without first ensuring the primacy of its native language.
Additionally, Mohamud announced several associated initiatives that are slated to be implemented, including a new educational curriculum with Somali as the primary language of instruction, rehabilitation of monuments for fallen heroes, completion of renovations on the National Museum , and finalization of the Regional Somali Language Academy in conjunction with the governments of Djibouti and Ethiopia.
In March , Mohamud issued a presidential decree dissolving the extant Judicial Service Commission. Additionally, the dissolution letter from the Office of the President indicated that the panel was inconsistent with the Provisional Constitution and the judicial service law.