Irukandji syndrome is a condition that results from envenomation by certain box jellyfish. The syndrome was given its name in by Hugo Flecker , after the Aboriginal Irukandji people who live in Palm Cove , north of Cairns , Queensland , Australia , where stings are common.
Most stings occur during the summer wet season in October—May in North Queensland, with different seasonal patterns elsewhere. It has been described as feeling like little more than a mosquito bite.
The symptoms, however, gradually become apparent and then more and more intense in the subsequent 5 to minutes 30 minutes on average. Irukandji syndrome includes an array of systemic symptoms, including severe headache , backache , muscle pains, chest and abdominal pain , nausea and vomiting , sweating , anxiety , hypertension , tachycardia and pulmonary edema.
When properly treated, a single sting is almost never fatal; however, two people in Australia are believed to have died from Irukandji stings,  which has greatly increased public awareness of Irukandji syndrome.
It is unknown how many other deaths from Irukandji syndrome have been wrongly attributed to other causes.
The exact mechanism of action of the venom is unknown, but catecholamine excess may be an underlying mechanism in severe cases. Similar to other box jellyfish stings, first aid consists of flushing the area with vinegar to neutralize the tentacle stinging apparatus.
Nitroglycerin , a common drug used for cardiac conditions, is utilised by medical personnel to minimise the risk of pulmonary edema and to reduce hypertension.
Fentanyl or morphine are usually chosen. Pethidine meperidine, brand name Demerol in the US should be avoided, as large doses are often required for pain relief and in this situation significant adverse effects from the pethidine metabolite norpethidine may occur.
Magnesium sulfate has been proposed as a treatment for Irukandji syndrome after being apparently successfully used in one case. In Jack Barnes confirmed the cause of the syndrome was a sting from a small box jellyfish : the Irukandji jellyfish , which can fire venom-filled stingers out of its body and into passing victims. To prove that the jellyfish was the cause of the syndrome, he captured one and deliberately stung himself while his son Nick and a local lifeguard then observed the resulting symptoms before rushing him to the ICU.
A Discovery Channel program, Killer Jellyfish , portrayed the severity of the pain from an Irukandji jellyfish sting when two Australian researchers Jamie Seymour and Teresa Carrette were stung.
In the segment, a young Australian woman was stung and developed a severe case. On the television program Super Animal , a woman compared her experience with Irukandji syndrome to the pain from childbirth. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Medical Journal of Australia.
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Irukandji syndrome pdf to excel
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Irukandji Syndrome: Information & Treatment
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Discovery Channel. Archived from the original on 29 April Categories : Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites of the skin Toxic effects of venomous animals Syndromes.
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