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Preferred Citation: Rousseau, G.
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O'Malley, who cannot. Here was a topic that had not been worked over by specialists, or generalists, in the field; a topic, moreover, of terrific contemporary impact, as men and women from diverse walks of life wonder how their minds and bodies—surely parts of one, indivisible, holistic unit—ever came to be separated. My own research interests in the relations of science and medicine to the imaginative art forms generated during the Enlightenment were so interdisciplinary that I began to envision ways in which these subjects could be transformed into a useful annual series.
More locally in southern California, medicine had been omitted from the Clark Library's programs from the inception of the Clark Professor Series, yet not by design. The late Donald G. O'Malley, a distinguished professor of the history of medicine at UCLA and the author of an important biography of Vesalius, the pioneering Renaissance anatomist, had died in , while in the midst of planning just such a series at the.
Clark Library. O'Malley would have executed his task with the characteristic dedication and thoroughness for which he was known during his lifetime. Had he lived long enough to prepare a volume similar to this one, I know it would have made a significant contribution to the frontiers of knowledge, and although he cannot read this book, I feel certain that he would have encouraged its conception and execution in every possible way.
To both these able scholar-administrators—Norman Thrower and D. O'Malley—this volume is dedicated. Yet ultimately the measure of this book's success will be determined by its diverse readership and by the nine contributors, all of whom were willing to take time from their own work and academic-administrative obligations at their home institutions to pursue the common theme of this volume: mind and body during the European Enlightenment.
The team itself was vigilantly selected with regard to disciplinary affinity, national origin, geographical location, and even generational point of view, gender, and methodology: all these to provide balance and variety to an area—the complex relations of mind and body in an epoch of intense intellectual ferment—in which new paths prove hard to find.
If, then, a common theoretical underpinning is perceived to be missing from the ten essays, or if it is adjudged that here less attention is paid to methodology than some readers would like, this derives, in part, as a direct consequence of the death of the first participant—the late Michel Foucault—and as the result of the liberty given to all the participants ensuring that they could follow their own researches.
Foucault had agreed to provide a theoretical framework of just the type for which he was deservedly renowned—specifically, to illuminate the semiotics and signposts of mind and body during the Enlightenment. Had he lived to participate in this volume, he would no doubt have performed his task with characteristic brilliance and bravura. I was therefore relieved when Roy Porter consented to replace him.
Porter had already agreed to participate in the series, but not in the opening slot, and I continue to remain in his debt for assisting me at a time when assistance was direly needed.
As if this kindness were insufficient, Porter also collaborated with me in composing the opening essay which, we hope, will tie together the threads of this complex subject. Chapters 2 through 10 were originally delivered as public lectures in Los Angeles from October to June , each describing an aspect of the representation of mind and body during the Enlightenment.
The introduction was not delivered in the series, but aims to contextualize the topic and introduce the various approaches—not by listing or comparing them in any systematic way but by locating them within a con-.
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The introduction—"Toward a Natural History of Mind and Body"—also aims to describe the tangled web and vast historiography of the subject. Even so, our collective approach in the volume remains eclectic, especially with reference to national cultures, and none of the contributors seeks to provide an exhaustive, let alone complete, view of his or her topic in any sense in which completeness can be construed. That mind and body should continue to serve as vital metaphors for these disciplines—in literary criticism, for example—attests, as well, to the resonance of the concept into our own era.
Our intention has not been to take sides and decide these matters once and for all, but to trace origins and chart continuities—to tease out the metaphors and tropes that continue to haunt late-twentieth-century civilized discourse. And we consider it our collective task to assess the status of the split in Europe during the period of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in this book commonly referred to for convenience as the Enlightenment.
Always, our task was eased by the Clark's Librarian, Dr. Thomas Wright, and his deputy, Dr.
John Bidwell, and was also facilitated by the staff of the institution, who accord their guests so many acts of kindness. The volume, more specifically its editor, incurred a number of debts during the annual series that must be acknowledged, even if briefly. Susan Green assisted us even before the series opened by meticulous supervision of every aspect of its daily operations; and Carol Briggs, now resident in London but then very much a member of the Clark's staff, proved most useful on those leisurely Friday afternoons when the scholars gathered with the public, delivered their talks, and engaged in lively and sometimes heated debate about these controversial subjects.
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Sandra Guideman transformed the long and complex initial man-. Calder, released me from various duties in the Department of English so that I could focus my attention in on the book, during the year after the series was delivered. Gerald Kissler, our Vice-Provost at UCLA, supported the series in a number of ways during the actual year, and Provost Raymond Orbach provided us with funding that ensured the publication of this volume.
Professor Herbert Morris, our Dean of Humanities in the College of Letters and Science at UCLA, aided us under two hats: in his administrative capacity and, as crucially, as a philosopher who came to some of our meetings and asked hard questions.
Most tangibly, Scott Mahler, our editor at the University of California Press, performed a multiplicity of kindnesses and services too numerous to be itemized here.
To all these friends of The Languages of Psyche, and to the others whose names do not appear because the Preface would have swelled to Brobdingnagian proportions if the full roll call had been produced, we express our deep gratitude and thanks. Robert G.
Frank, Jr. Antonie M.
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David B. Morris, formerly Professor of English at the University of Iowa, is a free-lance writer who lives in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Richard H. Dora B. I know that a Triangle is not a Square, and that Body is not Mind, as the Child knows that Nurse that feeds it is neither the Cat it plays with, nor the Blackmoor it is afraid of, and the Child and I come by our Knowledge after the same Manner.
For mark the Order of things, according to their [the metaphysicians'] account of them. First comes that huge Body, the sensible World. Then this and its Attributes beget sensible ideas. Then out of sensible Ideas, by a kind of lopping and pruning, are made ideas intelligible, whether specific or general. I find my spirits and my health affect each other reciprocally—that is to say, everything that discomposes my mind, produces a correspondent disorder in my body; and my bodily complaints are remarkably mitigated by those considerations that dissipate the clouds of mental chagrin.
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Descartes appeared to have fallen rather out of love with geometry and physics, and liked to imagine for this apostle of reason was singularly prone to imagining the workings of the living organism. Indeed, in spite of his efforts to separate Psyche from the body and from extension, he went to great lengths to find her a cerebral habitation and to demonstrate that this location was indispensable for the purpose of feeling.
How is it, that the visual picture proceeds—if that is the right word—from an electrical disturbance in the brain? The compulsive urge to cruelty and destruction springs from the organic displacement of the relationship between the mind and body.
Curiously, for a society that believes in a mind superior to the body, we extol behavior in which the mind is said to be absorbed in the body, in contrast to a sexual act in which the mind may be detached from the body At one time many people adhered to what the philosopher Gilbert Ryle called the 'official view' of the relationship between mind and body or brain , which can be traced back at least to Descartes.
According to this view, mind or soul is a type of substance, a special type of ephemeral, intangible substance, different from, but coupled to, the very tangible sort of stuff of which our bodies are made. Mind, then, is a thing which can have states—mental states—that can be altered by receiving sense data as a result of its coupling to the brain.
But this is not all. The link which couples brain and mind works both ways, enabling us to impress our will upon our brains, hence bodies. Today, however, these dualistic ideas have fallen out of favor with many scientists, who prefer to regard the brain as a highly complex, but otherwise unmysterious electrochemical machine, subject to the laws of physics in the same way as any other machine.
Davies et al. Progress lies in the direction of disengagement from the social and medical sciences, and through greater cooperation between historians and literary scholars. The old boundaries between fact and fiction, the real and the imagined, subject and object have been breached. Now comes the task of reconnecting mind and body.
Gillis, Annals of Scholarship 5, 4 : There is a straight ladder from the atom to the grain of sand, and the only real mystery in physics is the missing rung. Below it, particle physics; above it, classical physics; but in between, metaphysics. All the mystery in life turns out to be this same mystery, the join between things which are distinct and yet continuous, body and mind.
In their different ways, all the authors investigate why it has been the case and still is that conceptualizing consciousness, the human body, and the interactions between the two has proved so confusing, contentious, and inconclusive—or, as we might put it, has acted as the grit in the oyster that has produced pearls of thought.
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Putnam, , and the famous British psychiatrist Henry Maudsley's medico-philosophical study of Body and Mind London, Ayer, and in such works as the well-known philosopher C. More recently, see R. Rieber, ed. The literature is vast and continues to produce scholarship, as can be surmised from the entry on "Mind and Body" in the recently published Oxford Companion to the Mind, ed.
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Gregory Oxford: Oxford University Press, , It must itself be problematized—theorized—in relation to history, language, and culture. And here, the first thing to notice—a bizarre fact—is the paucity of synthetic historical writing upon this profound issue.
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But we want to comment on the main curves of the heritage of mind and body, especially by noticing the supremacy of mind over body throughout the Christian tradition, and the reinforcement of this hierarchy in the aftermath of Cartesian dualism. Both mind and body received a great deal of attention in the Enlightenment, and it is one of the purposes of this book to annotate this relationship in a variety of discourses, more fully than the matter has been studied before.
There is also a large literature, scientific and mystical, secular and religious, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that treats of the mind's control over the body or the converse: see, for instance, the Paracelsian physician F. Other works attempted to demarcate the boundaries of mind and body, such as John Petvin's Letters concerning Mind London: J.
Rivington, ; John Richardson's of Newtent Thoughts upon Thinking; or, A new theory of the human mind: wherein a physical rationale of the formation of our ideas, the passions, dreaming and every faculty of the soul is attempted upon principles entirely new London: J. Robson,  , a philosophical treatise aiming to differentiate the realm of mind from that of soul. Still other discourses, often medical dissertations written with an eye on Hobbes's De Corpore , actually aimed to anatomize the soul as distinct from the brain in strictly mechanical terms; see, for example, Johann Ambrosius Hillig, Anatomie der Seelen Leipzig, In all these diverse discourses, the dualism of mind and body was so firmly ingrained by the mid eighteenth century that compendiums such as the following continued to be issued: Anonymous, A View of Human Nature; or, Select Histories, Giving an account of persons who have been most eminently distinguish'd by their virtues or vices, their perfections or defects, either of body or mind London: S.
Birt, More recently, in the Romantic period, there was realignment of the dualism often in favor of the body, as J. In our century, the discussion has proliferated in a number of directions. On the one hand, there is a vast psychoanalytic and psychohistorical literature that we do not specifically engage in this volume but whose tenets can be grasped, if controversially, in Norman O.
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On the other, the philosophy of mind within the academic study of philosophy has continued to privilege mind over body. During this decade there has been a proliferation of studies of the body in respect of gender, as in: Sandra M. The full range of studies of the body in our time will become apparent when Dr.
For the predication of such differences was one of Plato's prime strategies. In attempting to demonstrate against sophists and skeptics that humans could achieve a true understanding of the world, Plato developed rhetorical ploys that postulated dichotomies between on the one hand what are deemed merely fleeting appearances or shadows and on the other what are to be discovered as eternal, immutable realities. Such binary opposites are respectively construed in terms of the contrast between the merely mundane and the truly immaterial; and these in turn are shown to find their essential expressions on the one side in corporeality and on the other in consciousness.