Nigerian Civil War Pdf Quiz

Nigerian civil war pdf quiz

Military killed: 45, [29] —, [33] [34] killed. Displaced: 2,,—4,, [36]. Biafra represented nationalist aspirations of the Biafran people, whose leadership felt they could no longer coexist with the Northern-dominated federal government.

Nigerian Civil War: Wikis

The conflict resulted from political, economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions which preceded Britain's formal decolonization of Nigeria from to Immediate causes of the war in included ethno-religious riots in Northern Nigeria, [38] a military coup , a counter-coup and persecution of Igbo living in Northern Nigeria. Control over the lucrative oil production in the Niger Delta played a vital strategic role. Within a year, the Federal Government troops surrounded Biafra, capturing coastal oil facilities and the city of Port Harcourt.

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The blockade imposed during the ensuing stalemate led to mass starvation. During the two and half years of the war, there were about , overall military casualties, while between , and 2 million Biafran civilians died of starvation.

In mid, images of malnourished and starving Biafran children saturated the mass media of Western countries. The United Kingdom and the Soviet Union were the main supporters of the Nigerian government, while France , Israel and some other countries supported Biafra.

Nigerian civil war pdf quiz

The civil war can be connected to the British colonial amalgamation of Northern protectorate , Lagos Colony and Southern Nigeria protectorate later renamed Eastern Nigeria. Intended for better administration due to the close proximity of these protectorates, the change did not account for the great difference in the cultures and religions of the peoples in each area.

Competition for political and economic power exacerbated tensions.

Nigerian Civil War Facts / History { Biafra Civil war }

Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom in , but remained in the Commonwealth of Nations , composed of 53 former UK colonies. In , Nigeria had a population of 60 million people, made up of more than differing ethnic and cultural groups.

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More than fifty years earlier, the United Kingdom had carved an area out of West Africa containing many different ethnic groups calling it Nigeria. Although these groups have their own homelands, by the s, the people were dispersed across Nigeria, with all three ethnic groups represented substantially in major cities.

When the war broke out in , there were still 5, Igbos in Lagos. The semi- feudal and Islamic Hausa-Fulani in the North were traditionally ruled by a feudal, conservative Islamic hierarchy consisting of Emirs who, in turn, owed their allegiance to a supreme Sultan.

Nigerian Civil War: Causes, Effects and Other Facts You Should Know

This Sultan was regarded as the source of all political power and religious authority. The Yoruba political system in the southwest, like that of the Hausa-Fulani, also consisted of a series of monarchs, the Oba. The Yoruba monarchs, however, were less autocratic than those in the North [ citation needed ]. The political and social system of the Yoruba accordingly allowed for greater upward mobility , based on acquired rather than inherited wealth and title. In contrast to the two other groups, Igbos and the ethnic groups of the Niger Delta in the southeast lived mostly in autonomous, democratically organised communities, although there were eze or monarchs in many of the ancient cities, such as the Kingdom of Nri.

In its zenith the Kingdom controlled most of Igbo land, including influence on the Anioma people , Arochukwu which controlled slavery in Igbo , and Onitsha land. Unlike the other two regions, decisions within the Igbo communities were made by a general assembly in which men and women participated.

Nigerian Civil War

The differing political systems among these three peoples reflected and produced divergent customs and values. The Hausa-Fulani commoners, having contact with the political system only through a village head designated by the Emir or one of his subordinates, did not view political leaders as amenable to influence.

Political decisions were to be submitted to. As with all other authoritarian religious and political systems, leadership positions were given to persons willing to be subservient and loyal to superiors. A chief function of this political system in this context was to maintain conservative values, which caused many Hausa-Fulani to view economic and social innovation as subversive or sacrilegious [ citation needed ].

In contrast to the Hausa-Fulani, the Igbos and other Biafrans often participated directly in the decisions which affected their lives. They had a lively awareness of the political system and regarded it as an instrument for achieving their personal goals. Status was acquired through the ability to arbitrate disputes that might arise in the village, and through acquiring rather than inheriting wealth.

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These tradition-derived differences were perpetuated and perhaps enhanced by the British system of colonial rule in Nigeria. In the North, the British found it convenient to rule indirectly through the Emirs, thus perpetuating rather than changing the indigenous authoritarian political system. Christian missionaries were excluded from the North, and the area thus remained virtually closed to European cultural imperialism.

By contrast the richest of the Igbo often sent their sons to British universities, thinking to prepare them to work with the British. During the ensuing years, the Northern Emirs maintained their traditional political and religious institutions, while reinforcing their social structure. At the time of independence in , the North was by far the most underdeveloped area in Nigeria. The West also enjoyed a much higher literacy level, as it was the first part of the country to have contact with western education, and established a free primary education program under the pre-independence Western Regional Government.

Nigerian civil war pdf quiz

In the West, the missionaries rapidly introduced Western forms of education. Consequently, the Yoruba were the first group in Nigeria to adopt Western bureaucratic social norms. They made up the first classes of African civil servants, doctors, lawyers, and other technicians and professionals.

In Eastern areas, missionaries were introduced at a later date because of British difficulty in establishing firm control over the highly autonomous communities.

Population pressure in the Igbo homeland, combined with aspirations for monetary wages, drove thousands of Igbos to other parts of Nigeria in search of work. By the s, Igbo political culture was more unified and the region relatively prosperous, with tradesmen and literate elites active not just in the traditionally Igbo East, but throughout Nigeria.

Nigerian civil war pdf quiz

The British colonial ideology that divided Nigeria into three regions—North, West and East—exacerbated the already well-developed economic, political, and social differences among Nigeria's different ethnic groups. The country was divided in such a way that the North had a slightly higher population than the other two regions combined. There were also wide-spread reports of fraud during Nigeria's first census, [49] and even today population remains a highly political issue in Nigeria.

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On this basis the Northern Region was allocated a majority of the seats in the Federal Legislature established by the colonial authorities. These parties were not exclusively homogeneous in terms of their ethnic or regional make-up; the disintegration of Nigeria resulted largely from the fact that these parties were primarily based in one region and one tribe. The basis of modern Nigeria formed in , when Britain amalgamated the Northern and Southern protectorates.

Beginning with the Northern Protectorate, the British implemented a system of indirect rule of which they exerted influence through alliances with local forces. This system worked so well, Colonial Governor Frederick Lugard successfully lobbied to extend it to the Southern Protectorate through amalgamation. In this way, a foreign and hierarchical system of governance was imposed on the Igbos [50] Intellectuals began to agitate for greater rights and independence.

Northern leaders, fearful that independence would mean political and economic domination by the more Westernized elites in the South, preferred the perpetuation of British rule.

Nigerian Civil War With Biafra: The Untold Story

As a condition for accepting independence, they demanded that the country continue to be divided into three regions with the North having a clear majority. Igbo and Yoruba leaders, anxious to obtain an independent country at all costs, accepted the Northern demands.

However, the two Southern regions had significant cultural and ideological differences, leading to discord between the two Southern political parties. Firstly, the AG favored a loose confederacy of regions in the emergent Nigerian nation whereby each region would be in total control of its own distinct territory.

Nigerian civil war pdf quiz

The status of Lagos was a sore point for the AG which did not want Lagos, a Yoruba town which was at that time the Federal Capital and seat of national government to be designated as the Capital of Nigeria if it meant loss of Yoruba sovereignty. The AG insisted that Lagos, a Yoruba city situated in Western Nigeria must be completely recognized as a Yoruba town without any loss of identity, control or autonomy by the Yoruba. Contrary to this position, the NCNC was anxious to declare Lagos, by virtue of it being the "Federal Capital Territory" as "no man's land" - a declaration which as could be expected angered the AG which offered to help fund the development of another territory in Nigeria as "Federal Capital Territory" and then threatened secession from Nigeria if it didn't get its way.

The threat of secession by the AG was tabled, documented and recorded in numerous constitutional conferences, including the constitutional conference held in London in with the demand that a right of secession be enshrined in the constitution of the emerging Nigerian nation to allow any part of the emergent nation to opt out of Nigeria, should the need arise. In the face of sustained opposition by the NCNC delegates, later joined by the NPC and backed by threats to view maintenance of the inclusion of secession by the AG as treasonable by the British, the AG was forced to renounce its position of inclusion of the right of secession a part of the Nigerian constitution.

Northern—Southern tension manifested first in the Jos Riot in which Igbo people died [38] and again on 1 May , as fighting in the Northern city of Kano.

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Each government was entitled to collect royalties from resources extracted within its area. This changed in when Shell-BP found large petroleum deposits in the Eastern region. The government following independence promotes discord in the West with the creation of a new Mid-Western Region in an area with oil potential.

Nigeria gained independence on 1 October, The First Republic came into being on 1 October He formed an alliance with the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons party, and its popular nationalist leader Nnamdi "Zik" Azikiwe , who became Governor General and then President.

The Yoruba-aligned Action Group, the third major party, played the opposition role. Workers became increasingly aggrieved by low wages and bad conditions, especially when they compared their lot to the lifestyles of politicians in Lagos. Most wage earners lived in the Lagos area, and many lived in overcrowded dangerous housing.

Labour activity including strikes intensified in , culminating in a nationwide general strike in June Strikers disobeyed an ultimatum to return to work and at one point were dispersed by riot police. Eventually, they did win wage increases.

Civil War - Biafra Crisis - Nigerian Civil War - This Week - 1969

The strike included people from all ethnic groups. Njoku later wrote that the general strike heavily exacerbated tensions between the Army and ordinary civilians, and put pressure on the Army to take action against a government which was widely perceived as corrupt. The elections , which involved heavy campaigning all year, brought ethnic and regional divisions into focus.

Which of the following statements is NOT true of Nigeria’s independence?

Resentment of politicians ran high and many campaigners feared for their safety while touring the country. The Army repeatedly deployed to Tiv Division , killing hundreds and arresting thousands of Tiv people agitating for self-determination. Widespread reports of fraud tarnished the election's legitimacy. Violence spread throughout the country and some began to flee the North and West, some to Dahomey. Britain maintained its economic hold on the country, through continued alliance and reinforcement of Northern Nigeria, dominated by the Fulani.

The British-owned United Africa Company alone controlled Also murdered was Sir Ahmadu Bello's wife and officers of Northern extraction. He did not return until days after the coup.

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There was widespread suspicion that the Igbo coup plotters had tipped him and other Igbo leaders off regarding the impending coup. In addition to the killings of the Northern political leaders, the Premier of the Western region, Ladoke Akintola and Yoruba senior military officers were also killed.

Why are people living in the Niger Delta angry?

The coup, also referred to as "The Coup of the Five Majors", has been described in some quarters as Nigeria's only revolutionary coup. Claims of electoral fraud were one of the reasons given by the coup plotters. This coup was however seen not as a revolutionary coup by other sections of Nigerians, especially in the Northern and Western sections and later revisionists of Nigerian coups.

Some alleged, mostly from Eastern part of Nigeria, that the majors sought to spring Action Group leader Obafemi Awolowo out of jail and make him head of the new government. Their intention was to dismantle the Northern-dominated power structure but their efforts to take power was unsuccessful. Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi , an Igbo and loyalist head of the Nigerian Army , suppressed coup operations in the South and he was declared head of state on 16 January after the surrender of the majors.