There is an urgent need for transition from existing fossil fuel based energy systems to one based on renewable resources to decrease reliance on depleting reserves of fossil fuels with the objective to assess whether India can sustain its growth and its society with renewable resources.
This paper gives an overview of the renewable energies in India while evaluating the current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India.
Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal. Related article at Pubmed , Scholar Google. India is the fourth largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, China, and Russia . Rapid urbanization and improving standards of living for millions of Indian households, the demand is likely to grow significantly.
Non-Renewable Sources Of Energy
In order to sustain the production, industries have opted for inefficient diesel-fuelled backup power. The domestic power demand of India was billion units in It is expected that at 9. At this pace, India will require GW in the next eight years which is almost double its current installed capacity of gigawatts GW.
There is growing energy inequity between rural and urban areas and also between the developed and developing states. There are millions who are yet to be benefited from electricity in rural India. The scarcity of electricity in rural areas in comparison to urban areas seems to be biased in delivery through the centralized system.
While the urban-rural difference in energy supply could be reduced through renewable energy, it is more complex to overcome the widening gap between developed and not so developed states . Current centralized energy planning of India is dependent on coal and fossil fuel sources. The main concern arises on how to protect the fossil fuel for our coming generation with simultaneously utilizing the different resources of energy for high and sustained economic growth.
Pressure to increase its energy supplies and the consequent negative environmental impact of fossil fuels has led India to a conscious policy toward renewable sources . Current scenario of energy demand and supply demands the research and development activities in exploration of new reserves.
Overview of Renewable Energy Resources of India
There are huge amount of potential available in the renewable energy system which can be explored and harnessed to meet the energy demand. The anticipated all India power supply position indicates that the country is expected to experience energy shortage of 6.
There is a clear need to step up capacities and energy availability as the economy grows.
The country has the fifth-largest power generation portfolio worldwide . The dominance of coal in the energy mix is likely to continue in near future. Other renewables such as wind, geothermal, solar, and hydroelectricity represent a 2 percent share of the Indian fuel mix. Wind energy is one of the most promising alternative energy technologies of the future. During recent years, the amount of energy produced by wind-driven turbines has increased rapidly due to considerable advancement in turbine technologies, making wind power economically compatible with conventional sources of energy.
The use of wind power in India has been gaining importance with rapid installation in the last few years. Wind energy makes up the majority about 68 per cent  of the total renewable energy capacity installed in India. Some studies have estimated even higher potential ranges up to GW .
Renewable & Non-Conventional Sources Of Energy
By the end of October , India had a total installed capacity of 19, megawatt MW , with 1, MW installed in The total wind power generation in was 23, The 12th Five Year Plan aims to install 15, MW between and , which will almost double the total capacity of wind power in India . The sector has been growing rapidly for the last decade.
The Number of SHP plants has doubled. SHP is by far the oldest renewable energy technology used to generate electricity in India. This is spread over projects; hence, the average SHP project capacity is 3. This does not include micro-hydel plants. The total potential country-wide capacity is estimated at 19, MW, of which about 1, MW is under development . The current total installed capacity of small hydro power plants is The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.
At the core of the Earth, temperatures may reach over degrees Celsius . Geothermal energy comes from the natural heat of the Earth primarily due to the decay of the naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. According to its property, geothermal energy can be divided into four types: hydrothermal field, geo pressured geothermal resource, hot dry rock deposit and magma resource . The most promising geothermal fields in India are:.
Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various human and natural activities. It is derived from numerous sources, including the by-products from the timber industry, firewood, agricultural residues such as bagasse, crop straw, animal dung and wastes generated from agro-based industries.
Biomass takes carbon out of the atmosphere while it is growing, and returns it as it is burned. If it is managed on a sustainable basis, biomass is harvested as part of a constantly replenished crop.
Municipal solid wastes, animal and poultry wastes are also referred to as biomass as they are biodegradable in nature. The main biomass sources are as listed below.
Non renewable energy resources in india pdf file
In India, a total of 4, MW has been installed under bio energy, both in grid connected and off-grid capacities . Using solar power to produce electricity is not the same as using solar to produce heat.
Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources of Energy
Solar thermal principles are applied to produce hot fluids or air and photovoltaic principles are used to produce electricity. A solar cell is a semiconductor device designed to turn solar irradiance into electricity.
The solar power on the surface of earth is W.
The total worldwide power demand of all needs of civilization is W. Therefore, the sun gives us times more power than we need. Among the various renewable energy resources, solar energy potential is the highest in the country. The equivalent energy potential is about 6, million GWh of energy per year.
As compared to this, the present level of generation of electricity in from all resources was 0. The National Solar Mission targeting 20, MW grid solar Power, 2, MW of off-grid capacity including 20 million solar lighting systems and 20 million square meters solar thermal collector area by is under implementation .
As on 31st October , the total solar installed capacity stood at MW, out of which grid-connected solar capacity was MW and off-grid systems was MW . Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea.
Tides occur due to the attraction of seawater by the moon. Tidal energy can be harnessed in two ways.
The first, Tidal range technology uses a barrage to draw on the power of the water as it changes height between high tide and low tide in a similar way to a hydroelectric system. Another one, Tidal stream technology or marine current draws on the power of fast currents caused by tides flowing around headlands or through channels. Both offer the same benefits of tidal energy:.
These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power. When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called flood tide and when the level is below the mean level, it is called ebb tide. A dam is constructed in such a way that a basin gets separated from the sea and a difference in the water level is obtained between the basin and sea. The constructed basin is filled during high tide and emptied during low tide passing through sluices and turbine respectively.
The Potential energy of the water stored in the basin is used to drive the turbine which in turn generates electricity as it is directly coupled to an alternator. In the state of Gujarat, the Gulf of Kutch is an appropriate place for electrical energy from the energy generated by tall and powerful tides moving into small brook . The oceans are thus a vast renewable resource, with the potential to help us produce billions of watts of electric power.
The cold seawater used in the OTEC process is also rich in nutrients and it can be used to culture both marine organisms and plant life near the shore or on land. All of our coal, oil and natural gas are the result of the capture of solar energy by life of the past.
There have been many projects for harnessing solar energy, but most have not been successful because they attempt to capture the energy directly. The problem with this is that huge collectors must be deployed to do this, and resulting in large costs. The idea behind OTEC is the use of all natural collectors, the sea, instead of artificial collector .
A pilot plant of capacity 14 MW is proposed to be set up in the State . A fuel cell by definition is an electrical cell, which unlike storage cells can be continuously fed with a fuel so that the electrical power output is sustained indefinitely.
Electrical energy is produced by converting hydrogen, or hydrogencontaining fuels, directly along with heat through the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen into water. The process is known as electrolysis in reverse. Because hydrogen and oxygen gases are electrochemically converted into water, fuel cells have many advantages over heat engines. These include: high efficiency, virtually silent operation and, if hydrogen is the fuel, there are no pollutant emissions.
If the production of hydrogen is from renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power , then the entire system is truly sustainable.
Formation of water and carbon dioxide are the two principle reactions in the burning of any hydrocarbon fuel. With the formation of water becoming more significant, there is an increase in the hydrogen content in a fuel resulting in lower carbon dioxide emissions.
The anticipated energy deficit in India during is 6. To diminish the gap between demand and supply of energy we need to generate more power. India has plenty of renewable energy potential to bridge the gap between demand and supply. There is need to increase total domestic energy production in order to reduce import dependence, combined with the need to move away from fossil fuels in the longer run in view of climate change considerations and it points to the need for stronger efforts to increase the supply of energy from renewables.
Kumar, A. Garg, S. Kriplani and P. Satao, Dr. Vivek, Dr. Chetan, Nileema B.