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SECAM remained a major standard into the s.
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The articles on broadcast television systems , and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. The standard spread from France to its former African colonies. The system was also selected as the standard for color in the Soviet Union , who began broadcasts shortly after the French, and remained in use in most of those countries that were once part of the Soviet Union.
The technology was ready by the end of the s, but this was too soon for a wide introduction.
Following a pan-European agreement to introduce color TV only in lines, France had to start the conversion by switching over to a line television standard, which happened at the beginning of the s with the introduction of a second network. The first proposed system was called SECAM I in , followed by other studies to improve compatibility and image quality. The team was working in Moscow 's Telecentrum under the direction of Professor Shmakov. A group of four suited men—a presenter Georges Gorse , Minister of Information and three contributors to the system's development—were shown standing in a studio.
The first color television sets cost Francs. Color TV was not very popular initially; only about people watched the inaugural program in color.
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A year later, only , sets had been sold of an expected million. This pattern was similar to the earlier slow build-up of color television popularity in the US. However, with the fall of communism , and following a period when multi-standard TV sets became a commodity , many Eastern European countries decided to switch to the German-developed PAL system.
Some have argued that the primary motivation for the development of SECAM in France was to protect French television equipment manufacturers. Henri de France's personal charisma and ambition may have been a contributing factor.
PAL was developed by Telefunken , a German company, and in the post-war De Gaulle era there would have been much political resistance to dropping a French-developed system and adopting a German-developed one instead.
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Eventually, the government in East Berlin stopped paying attention to so-called " Republikflucht via Fernsehen", or "defection via television". Another explanation for the Eastern European adoption of SECAM, led by the Soviet Union, is that the Russians had extremely long distribution lines between broadcasting stations and transmitters. These signals are much more important to compatibility than the color sub carriers are.
They differ by AM or FM sound modulation, signal polarization , relative frequencies within the channel, bandwidth, etc.
This, along with language issues, meant that in most countries monochrome-only reception did not pose a significant problem for the authorities. Just as with the other color standards adopted for broadcast usage over the world, SECAM is a standard which permits existing monochrome television receivers predating its introduction to continue to be operated as monochrome televisions.
Because of this compatibility requirement, color standards added a second signal to the basic monochrome signal, which carries the color information. The color information is called chrominance or C for short, while the black-and-white information is called the luminance or Y for short.
Monochrome television receivers only display the luminance, while color receivers process both signals. Additionally, for compatibility, it is required to use no more bandwidth than the monochrome signal alone; the color signal has to be somehow inserted into the monochrome signal, without disturbing it. This insertion is possible because the spectrum of the monochrome TV signal is not continuous for most typical video content , hence empty space exists which can be utilized.
This typical lack of continuity results from the discrete nature of the signal, which is divided into frames and lines. Therefore, all of these color systems compromise luma quality to some extent in exchange for the addition of color—i. Analog color systems differ by the way in which infrequently used space in the frequency band of the signal is used. In all cases, the color signal is inserted at the end of the spectrum of the monochrome signal, where it causes less visual distortion only affecting fine detail in the uncommon case that the monochrome signal had significant frequency components overlapping the color signal.
In order to be able to separate the color signal from the monochrome one in the receiver, a fixed frequency sub carrier is used, this sub carrier being modulated by the color signal. The color space is three-dimensional by the nature of the human vision, so after subtracting the luminance, which is carried by the base signal, the color sub carrier still has to carry a two-dimensional signal.
Typically the red R and the blue B information are carried because their signal difference with luminance R-Y and B-Y is stronger than that of green G-Y. Second, instead of transmitting the red and blue information together, it only sends one of them at a time, and uses the information about the other color from the preceding line.
It uses an analog delay line , a memory device, for storing one line of color information. This justifies the "Sequential, With Memory" name. This means that the vertical color resolution is halved relative to NTSC. This encoding is better suited to the transmission of only one signal at a time.
FM modulation of the color information allows SECAM to be completely free of the dot crawl problem commonly encountered with the other analog standards. However, owing to their FM nature, the color signal remains present, although at reduced amplitude, even in monochrome portions of the image, thus being subject to stronger cross color even though color crawl of the PAL type doesn't exist.
Though most of the pattern is removed from PAL and NTSC-encoded signals with a comb filter designed to segregate the two signals where the luma spectrum may overlap into the spectral space used by the chroma by modern displays, some can still be left in certain parts of the picture. Such parts are usually sharp edges on the picture, sudden color or brightness changes along the picture or certain repeating patterns, such as a checker board on clothing.
Dot crawl patterns can be completely removed by connecting the display to the signal source through a cable or signal format different from composite video yellow RCA cable or a coaxial cable, such as S-Video , which carries the chroma signal in a separate band all its own, leaving the luma to use its entire band, including the usually empty parts when they are needed. The idea of reducing the vertical color resolution comes from Henri de France, who observed that color information is approximately identical for two successive lines.
Unboxing e Test: Convertitore PAL - NTSC X NTSC - PAL
Because the color information was designed to be a cheap, backwards compatible addition to the monochrome signal, the color signal has a lower bandwidth than the luminance signal, and hence lower horizontal resolution. Fortunately, the human visual system is similar in design: it perceives changes in luminance at a higher resolution than changes in chrominance, so this asymmetry has minimal visual impact. It was therefore also logical to reduce the vertical color resolution.
A similar paradox applies to the vertical resolution in television in general: reducing the bandwidth of the video signal will preserve the vertical resolution, even if the image loses sharpness and is smudged in the horizontal direction.
Hence, video could be sharper vertically than horizontally. Additionally, transmitting an image with too much vertical detail will cause annoying flicker on television screens, as small details will only appear on a single line in one of the two interlaced fields , and hence be refreshed at half the frequency.
This is a consequence of interlaced scanning that is obviated by progressive scan. Computer-generated text and inserts have to be carefully low-pass filtered to prevent this.
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The latest European efforts towards an analog standard, resulting in MAC systems, still used the sequential color transmission idea of SECAM, with only one of time-compressed U and V components being transmitted on a given line. The D2-MAC standard enjoyed some short real market deployment, particularly in northern European countries. To some extent, this idea is still present in digital sampling format, which is used by most digital video medias available to the public.
In this case, however, color resolution is halved in both horizontal and vertical directions thus yielding a more symmetrical behavior. It should not be mistaken for a broadcast standard. It will play in black and white only, the color is lost.
So the world is left with two different incompatible standards for recording SECAM on video cassette. On VHS tapes, the luminance signal is recorded in its original form albeit with some reduction of bandwidth but the PAL or NTSC chrominance signal is too sensitive to small changes in frequency caused by inevitable small variations in tape speed to be recorded directly.
This works well and simplifies VCR design. For this reason, to mix two SECAM signals, they must be demodulated, the demodulated signals mixed, and are remodulated again. Reducing the costs of running television stations is one reason for some countries' recent switchovers to PAL.
The result could be converted back to SECAM in some models; most people buying such expensive equipment would have a multistandard TV set and as such would not need a conversion.
However, this is of dwindling importance: since most European domestic video equipment uses French-originated SCART connectors, allowing the transmission of RGB signals between devices. In general, modern professional equipment is now all-digital, and uses component-based digital interconnects such as CCIR to eliminate the need for any analog processing prior to the final modulation of the analog signal for broadcast.
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However, large installed bases of analog professional equipment still exist, particularly in third world countries. This is a list of nations that currently authorize the use of the SECAM standard for television broadcasting.
This required viewers to purchase multistandard receivers though. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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What is the difference between PAL NTSC and SECAM
Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. Retrieved 4 August Channels of resistance in Lebanon: liberation propaganda, Hezbollah and the media. London [etc. Leuven University Press. Retrieved on Digital video resolutions.
Broadcast video formats. ATSC 3. AC-3 5. Color space. List of color spaces Color models.
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