Tour De France History Pdf

Tour de france history pdf

The scandal began in November , with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian and Jewish descent. Over that period what was a miscarriage of justice grew to be a scandal that rocked the French state to its very foundations.

Since its defeat by the German Empire in the war of and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany, the French Third Republic had lurched from one political crisis to another.

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Society was divided by those who supported a right-wing catholic royalism and by the more leftist parliamentary republicans and the radical socialists and communists.

The army still consisted of officers who were socially aristocratic and politically monarchists. The cult of the flag and contempt for the parliamentary republic were two essential principles in the army of the time. There was also rising anti jewish sentiment in France as in all of Europe.

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It was in this context that the young artillery officer Captain Dreyfus was convicted by a secret military court of passing secrets to Germany. As an Alsatian Jew, Dreyfus had few supporters outside of his immediate family and friends and the case received little public notice.

Tour de france history pdf

Mathieu Dreyfus was the elder brother of Alfred Dreyfus. He was convinced of his brothers innocence and dedicated his life to proving it.

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As the years passed the pro Dreyfus side grew, especially among left wing intellectuals. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days.

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The Army then accused Dreyfus of additional charges based on falsified documents. The article was a direct attack on all those who had conspired against Dreyfus, including the minister of war and the General Staff.

Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case. The affair exploded. It led to several trials at which Zola and Picquart were jailed and led to both pro Dreyfus and anti semitic riots.

The Dreyfus Affair

In , Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a year sentence. Eventually all the accusations against Alfred Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army.

Tour de france history pdf

He served during the whole of World War I ending his service with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. It embittered French politics and encouraged radicalization. Eventually as the 20th century worn on the leftists parliamentary republicans came to dominate French politics and still do.

There was a strengthening of parliamentary democracy and a failure of clerical, monarchist and reactionary forces.

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The affaire also convinced many jews of the merits of a jewish homeland and led to the rise of Zionism. A scuffle broke out between the great and the good who were in attendance. Loubot was the man who pardoned Dreyfus and ultimately defeated the clerical and monarchists opposition. De Dion believed that Dreyfus was guilty. He was sentenced to 15 days in jail and fined FR for the assault.

Comte Jules-Albert de Dion was the heir to a very wealthy aristocratic French family. He was a pioneer of the car industry and a keen racer of the cars his company built.

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Both steam in the early days and internal combustion engines in later years. His companies were major advertisers in various Parisian newspapers. It was run over the kilometres distance between Paris and Rouen.

Essentially it was a publicity stunt to promote the newspaper.

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A successful ploy which has been repeated many times since. The race was won by de Dion, although he was not awarded the prize for first place as his steam powered car required a stoker and the judges deemed this against the rules.

Tour de france history pdf

This may have lead de Dion to dislike Giffard. Giffard was also the creator of the Paris-Brest-Paris bike race in and the Paris marathon in Founded in it mixed sports with news and political commentary. He employed a prominent racing cyclist, Henri Desgrange, as a publicity writer.

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Various suggestions were made none of which Desgrange liked. He later claimed that when it was his turn to make suggestions he could not think of anything useful to say and rather than upset Desgrange by being silent he suggested a six-day race round France. Henri Desgrange then proposed the idea to the companies accountant and owners, who agreed to back it financially.

Tour de france history pdf

Le Tour de France was born. It was an instant success.

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The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was ,, achieved during the Tour. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Tour de france history pdf

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Jules-Albert de Dion. Pierre Giffard. Henri Desgrange.

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